Waste Generation and Disposal Methods in Emerging Countries
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
Solid waste is an environmental problem in both developed and developing countries. The typical problem in Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) of developing countries can be identified as inadequate service coverage and operational inefficiencies of services, limited utilization of recycling activities, inadequate landfill capacity, and inadequate management of hazardous and healthcare waste. In recent years, most developing countries have started to improve their municipal solid waste management practices. Different countries have adopted different strategies for reaching their goals, be it by applying advanced environmental technologies and extending recycling and reuse. Sustainable waste management will have to consider all possible options for the reduction of the negative impact of consumption.

A Guidebook for Sustainable Waste Management in Latin America
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
Economic development and rapid growth of urban population have resulted in the generation of enormous quantities of municipal solid waste (MSW) that cannot, any longer, be disposed of in the makeshift landfills of yesteryear. This has led the E.U., U.S. and other developed nations to adopt the so-called hierarchy of waste management that gives priority to waste reduction, recycling, composting and waste-to-energy (WTE) over landfilling. Sanitary landfills protect surface and groundwater and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere so they are preferable to non-regulated landfills. However, it has been estimated that only twenty percent of the global landfills are sanitary.

A Zero-Waste and Energetically Optimized Waste-to-Energy Concept – The Santo Domingo Este Waste Treatment Plant –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (11/2014)
In many poor and developing countries the situation of waste management as well as energy supply is dominated by uncontrolled waste dumping and shortage of affordable energy, especially electrical power. In the Dominican Republic, in particular the densely populated capital Santo Domingo and adjacent Santo Domingo Este (SDE) are affected by such problems. Waste is collected and transported to transfer stations, from which the waste is routed to a large open landfill. This landfill is illegal according to Dominican legislation and the capacity is limited.

Potentialities of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) project for Brazilian National Policy on Solid Waste and National Policy on Climate Change implementation
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Climate change (CC) and municipal solid waste (MSW) management have common demands to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The MSW disposal represent more than 20% of anthropogenic methane (CH4) (IPCC, 2005). The estimated contribution of this sector in anthropogenic GHG emissions is 3-5% (UNEP, 2010), and has great potential for reducing fuel and energy consumption in collection and treatment of CH4 avoided emissions in landfills by biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) diversion to biodigestion and composting, and fix carbon in soils by compost or biofertilizers produced application, and reduce natural resources extraction by multi-material recycling.

Monitoring, Reporting & Verification (MRV) – How environmental sciences can contribute to improving waste management practices in terms of climate protection and sustainability
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Despite its seemingly technical nature, MRV is yet one of the most important and contentious issues in any international arrangement on climate protection. The term encompasses all measures to collect performance data and to compile this information in reports and inventories, and to subject these to some form of review.

NAMAs – Introduction of a new instrument for climate protection and its relevance for the waste sector
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2014)
Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are an emerging international climate mitigation instrument. It is supposed to be used by developing countries to make progress in reducing their domestic greenhouse gas emissions, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity building in a measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV) manner. So far the definition from the Bali Action Plan – but what exactly is a NAMA?

bifa-Text No. 62: Ecoefficiency analysis of photovoltaic modules / english version
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (2/2014)
The study by the bifa environmental institute describes a future-orientated view of the ecological and economic effects of photovoltaic (PV) systems along their whole life cycle.

Renewable Energy Development in Two Selected African Countries: An Overview and Assessment
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (8/2013)
Government officials, academics, independent researchers and private investors have been working since the energy crises in the 1970s towards maximizing alternative and new renewable energy sources. The traditional sources of energy are based on exhaustible natural resources; therefore, the energy that is cleaner and more sustainable for the development of the world economy is a sine qua non. The economy of a country is measured with the consumption of energy per capita. Least developed and developing nations of Africa are hard pressed to increase their power generation and maximize other sources of energy. But due to their inherent limitations in terms of financial resources, lack of sophisticated technology, lack of sufficient foreign aid, and ever growing populations, their energy needs are going to increase in times to come of financial institution to exploit the available sources for energy generation depend on that. This paper attempts to provide an overview and assess the situation in two selected African countries: Nigeria and Algeria. The paper identifies some barriers and explores the way forward in these countries for successful energy generation by all possible means.

Development of a Legal Framework for Climate Change in Taiwan: Lessons from Europe and Germany
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2013)
In order to tackle climate change, many countries have been very active in announcing low-carbon policies and establishing related legislation. Even though Taiwan’s international status remains unclear in the global community and it is unable to participate formally in the climate change negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, Taiwan regards itself as a “non-Annex I” country under the Kyoto Protocol and continues to propose various climate change policies with a view to fulfilling its national emission reduction efforts and contributing to the international society. The Sustainable Energy Development Framework of 2008 is one of many examples of this kind.

The Sun Shines on India? – A Review of the Implementation and Financial Continuum of the National Solar Mission
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (2/2013)
Renewable energy is high on the agenda of the Indian government at present and it has gained a strong momentum through the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) and the sub-missions of the NAPCCC, like the National Solar Mission and National Mission on Sustainable Habitat. Renewable energy sources (RES) have long been recognized for their potential as environmentally friendly, versatile and sustainable energy alternatives for both rural and urban areas in India. Of all, solar energy seems to be one of the promising renewable energy (RE) markets with its underutilized manufacturing potential and significant capacities. Millions of stand photovoltaic (PV) systems aggregating to more than 1000 MW by the end of 2012 have been installed in the country. Solar water heating systems with a collector area of 2 million m2 have been mounted in addition to 1 million solar cookers. Still, solar energy is not the most popular source of renewable energy in India, due to the high costs of the systems, as well as the issues surrounding information and awareness and financial viability. This paper explores the implementation of the National Solar Mission in India and the subsequent paradigm shift in market development by identifying the impediments to policy and financial performance and offering some suggestions for overcoming them.

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