The Right to Water as an International Custom: The Implications in Climate Change Adaptation Measures
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (9/2012)
Water scarcity is a phenomenon of great concern at the international level. Climate change has significant impacts on water access, causing long dry period or intense precipitation, floods and drought. In the brief analysis, it will be proved through States’ practice that the right to water has almost achieved the status of a customary international norm as an independent human right, thus creating obligations upon all States. Considering the relation between water and climate change, it will be argued that the human right to water may be integrated in the adaptation measures provided for by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, even though the human rights and climate change regimes are distinct. The practice in climate change adaptation measures which consider the necessity of granting the access to water to the population is an element which supports the existence of an international custom recognizing the right to water as an independent human right. At the same time, however, this international custom may imply the development of a human rights-based approach in matters concerning climate change.

Interview: Membrane technology under discussion
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
The Institutes for Environmental Engineering (ISA) and for Chemical Process Engineering (AVT) of RWTH Aachen University together with the International Water Association (IWA) this year arrange the 6th IWA Specialist Conference on Membrane Technology for Water & Wastewater Treatment, an international forum for experts with about 140 lectures on the current status of research and development in membrane technology, Prof. Dr. Johannes Pinnekamp, director of the ISA, and Christine Ziegler of gwf-Wasser|Abwasser talked about the orientation and significance of the event and the major applications of membrane technology in the field of water and wastewater treatment.

Hygienic Membrane Process Design for Applications in the Beverage Industry as a Necessity for Cold-aseptic Beverage Production - From the viewpoint of an equipment and plant manufacturer
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
Due to the increasing requirements for industrially produced beverages, aseptic processes are gaining more and more relevance. This is manifested in extended shelf-lifes and an increasing number of untreated products. Usually heat treatment is the common method of pasteurisation. In terms of gentle product treatment and energy consumption, this is only the second-best manner. The authors map out what the requirements of a hygienic membrane process design for applications in the beverage industry have to be. They present solutions and discuss the problems involved in cold-aseptic beverage production.

Sulphate Removal from Ground Water – a Case Study
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
With ratification of the new German drinking water directive, the maximum allowable sulphate concentration is raised from 240 to 250 mg/L. However, exceedances due to geogenic conditions up to 500 mg/L sulphate are no longer permitted. Water supply utilities affected by this change now have to consider suitable treatment technologies for the given conditions. In a case study, a semi industrial pilot plant was operated with different low pressure reverse osmosis and nanofi ltration membranes to identify conditions for a stable operation and the required antiscalant dosage to achieve this. Long term operation was possible with both membrane types at a yield of 80 % with 1.2 g/m³ of polycarboxylic acid continuously dosed as antiscalant. In order to elucidate the possibilities for concentrate discharge several treatment processes have been investigated.

Modernisation and Enlargement of the Drinking Water Plant Irsch-Treves - The second largest ultra filtration plant in Germany under construction
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
The modernisation and enlargement of the second largest drinking water treatment plant (WTP) in Germany with the integration of an ultra-fi ltration stage began in February 2011, after more than a year of pilot tests. Following the current timetable the WTP in Irsch-Trier will be fully operational in summer 2013. The plant has a maximum capacity of 1600 m3/h and purifi es about 6 million m3 of drinking water per annum for the city of Treves and some surrounding communities. This paper gives a short description of the Riveris reservoir, the raw water and the existing WTP in Irsch-Treves. Furthermore, the reasons for upgrading the WTP, the targets for the new plant and the results of the pilot project are outlined. The bulk of the paper will however, be dedicated to the operational, design and constructional details of the new plant.

Comparison of the Pretreatment Efficiency Between UF and Sand Filtration of a Desalination Process Using a Reverse Osmosis Membrane
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
The pretreatment process is known to be the dominant infl uence factor in the RO process. Therefore, this study was done to evaluate effi ciency by comparing membrane fi ltration (UF) with two-stage sand fi ltrations for pretreatment of the RO process. SDI and particle size distribution of feed sea water and pretreatment permeate water were measured to analyse the infl uence of the fouling factor of the RO membrane. The SDI removal effi - ciency of the UF membrane fi ltration process was better than that for the sand fi ltration. The particle fraction under 20 μm of feed sea water and sand fi ltration permeate water was more than 93 % and 97 %, respectively. As for results of operation, micro particles were not removed by the sand fi ltration. Furthermore, although the UF membrane process had a higher recovery than the sand fi ltration process, the UF membrane process represented low RO resistance.

Design and Operation of an Ultrafiltration Plant for the Production of Drinking Water out of the River Scheldt
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (9/2011)
In April 2009, the production capacity of the conventional drinking water treatment plant “de Gavers” in Harelbeke, Belgium, was extended from 25,000 to 32,000 m³/day by the construction of an ultrafi ltration unit. In this paper, the design of the ultrafi ltration unit is elaborated and the fi rst operational results with respect to membrane fouling, membrane integrity and effl uent quality are presented. With respect to membrane fouling, in-line coagulation applying a small dose of fl occulant was found to be necessary to keep membrane fouling under control. Membrane integrity testing demonstrated a log 4 removal for micro-organisms larger than 3 μm. Compared to the conventional coagulation-fi ltration plant the ultrafi ltration unit produces an effl uent with lower bacteria counts. Moreover, the turbidity of its effl uent is also substantially lower. However, the hydraulic yield of ultrafi ltration is considerably lower than that of the conventional treatment and it results in a higher waste water production.

Comparison of IMS-Free and IMS Real-Time PCR Detection of Giardia lamblia from Surface Water
© PSP - Parlar Scientific Publications (12/2010)
Giardia lamblia is one of the most important waterborne pathogenic protozoa. Its occurrence in source and drinking water threatens human health seriously. In this study, four quantitative real-time PCR protocols involving Envirochek filtration, flat membrane filtration, immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and IMS-free separation to detect G. lamblia from surface water were compared.

Biofilms on aged Materials in Household Installation Systems
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (8/2010)
The causes of contamination originate in the water itself and on materials in contact with water. Drinking water is not sterile and does not have to be. Water treatment plants’ strategy consists in removing the nutrients that bacteria feed on to produce “biostable” drinking water. This allows in many cases chlorination to be avoided. But it is known that even biologically stable drinking water with very low nutrient content still contains micro-organisms. These micro-organisms can multiply themselves if they encounter nutrients.

Process Benchmarking in Drinking Waterworks in Germany
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (8/2010)
The “water production process” summarizing resources management, water catchment and treatment is a key process in the water supply chain. During 2005 to 2008 a new bottom-up approach was developed and tested, allowing a detailed performance (cost, quality, sustainability) analysis on the process level and accounting for differing water resources, treatment schemes and assets. During subsequent projects some additional functions of the IWA performance indicator model for water supply (Alegre et al., 2006 [1]) have been supplemented on the process level, e.g. processes in water networks.

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