Combining laser cleaning and LIBS: fast and precise recycling of metal alloys
© Lehrstuhl fĂźr Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2020)
In respect of a limited amount of raw material, costs, CO2 and waste reduction, high precision metal recycling is getting more and more important these days. Contaminations of the melt with unwanted or outright detrimental elements (e.g. C, S, P, Cu or Pb in steel, Cr or Ni in low-alloy steels, Li in aluminium and so forth) are a huge liability toward the ‘‘alloy-to-alloy’’ recycling goal and essentially the only option in this case, is either costly dilution with clean raw materials, downgrading or worst case scenario discarding.

Development of local municipal solid waste management in the Western Transdanubia region of Hungary
© Lehrstuhl fĂźr Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2020)
Hungarian municipal solid wastes (MSW) management has developed tremendously over the past 15 years. More than 3,000 landfills and dumps had been closed, just to mention one improvement. However, still, lots of work is necessary to accomplish the EU’s ambitious aim of decreasing landfilling and increasing recycling and composting.

New Sampling Technique for Coarse Waste Materials from Bales
© Lehrstuhl fĂźr Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2016)
Environmental analysis has to deal with the possible sources of error. It is known that the process of sampling is the major source of error (up to 90 % of the total error). The sampling error is scarcely considered, while the insignificant analysis error is included with up to three decimals. However, there are not yet any effective methods to reduce the sampling error, mainly because of the inhomogeneous properties of waste. The aim of the project was to improve the sampling process with the same or an even higher accuracy of the analysis results.

Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag fĂźr Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.

Fully Automated Sorting Plant for Municipal Solid Waste in Oslo with Recovery of Metals, Plastics, Paper and Refuse Derived Fuel
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag fĂźr Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In order to treat household waste Romerike Avfallsforedling (ROAF) located in Skedsmorkorset north of Oslo, Norway required the installation of a mechanical Treatment facility to process 40,000 tpa. Together with a Norwegian based technical consultancy Mepex and German based technical consultancy EUG the project was tendered and the plant build against a technical specification. In 2013 the project was awarded to Stadler Anlagenbau and since April 2014 the plant is in operation with an hourly throughput of thirty tons. The input waste contains specific green coloured bags containing food waste which is collected together with the residual waste from the households. The process recovers successfully the green food bags before the remaining waste is mechanically pre-treated and screened to isolate a polymer rich fraction which is then fully segregated via NIR technology in to target polymers prior to fully automated product baling. Recoverable Fibre is optically targeted as well as ferrous and non-ferrous metals. All food waste is transported off site for further biological treatment and the remaining residual waste leaves site for thermal recovery. In 2015 the plant has been successfully upgraded to forty tons per hour and remains fully automated including material baling.

Recovery of Metals from Sewage Sludges and Incineration Ashes by Means of Hyperaccumulating Plants
© Lehrstuhl fĂźr Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Sewage sludges as well as ashes from waste incineration plants are known accumulation sinks of many elements that are either important nutrients for biological organisms (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, etc.) or valuable metals when considered on their own in pure form (nickel, chrome, zinc, etc.); they are also serious pollutants when they occur in wild mixtures at localized anthropogenic end-of-stream points.

Hydrothermal Solution of Heavy Metals from MSWI Fly Ashes
© Lehrstuhl fĂźr Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
The solid residues produced during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may be grouped into bottom ashes and fly ashes, which contain appreciable amounts of Fe and non-iron (NE) metals as well. Pure metals like Fe, Al or Cu can be separated from the bottom ashes by physical methods but there are no attempts to extract NE metals which are incorporated in oxide, chloride or silicate mineral phases like Zn and Pb. In MSWI bottom ashes the Zn- and Pb contents vary from 2000 ppm up to 7000 ppm and 1000 ppm up to 3500 ppm, respectively.

Recovery of Critical Metals from Rinsing Water by Zero-Valent Iron
© Lehrstuhl fĂźr Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Raw materials, which are of great economic importance, but for which the risk of supply bottlenecks is valid, are considered as “critical”. Others, where this risk might occur due to market changes are called “potentially critical” (FFG 2012). The following metals are defined as (potentially) critical raw materials either by the EU or by the FFG: Be, Mg, Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Cr, Al, Ga, In, rare earth elements (REE), Ge, Sb, Nb, Ta, W, V, Mo, platinum group elements (PGE).

Preparation of a Mixed Nf-Metal Fraction for Metallurgical Recovery
© Lehrstuhl fĂźr Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
In Germany, thermally treated waste ends up in 4.8 M. tons/a of incineration bottom ash (iba), which contains 7 – 10 wt.-% metallic particles. In iba nonferrous metals (nf) have an amount of 2 – 5 % and are usually separated with eddy-current separators.

Heavy Metals Flows Induced by Plastics Utilisation in the Blast Furnace Process
© Lehrstuhl fĂźr Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Waste plastics can be utilised as an alternative reducing agent in the blast furnace process. There they are substituting for reducing agents such as coke, crude tar or heavy crude oil, for example. However, the utilisation of waste plastics as an alternative reducing agent is also associated with an additional input of heavy metals in the process. These heavy metals are not only relevant for the process stability and the product quality but also from an environmental Point of view. To which extent gaseous emissions or waste water from furnace gas cleaning may be influenced by feedstock recycling of waste plastics has been hardly investigated so far.

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