Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.

Fully Automated Sorting Plant for Municipal Solid Waste in Oslo with Recovery of Metals, Plastics, Paper and Refuse Derived Fuel
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In order to treat household waste Romerike Avfallsforedling (ROAF) located in Skedsmorkorset north of Oslo, Norway required the installation of a mechanical Treatment facility to process 40,000 tpa. Together with a Norwegian based technical consultancy Mepex and German based technical consultancy EUG the project was tendered and the plant build against a technical specification. In 2013 the project was awarded to Stadler Anlagenbau and since April 2014 the plant is in operation with an hourly throughput of thirty tons. The input waste contains specific green coloured bags containing food waste which is collected together with the residual waste from the households. The process recovers successfully the green food bags before the remaining waste is mechanically pre-treated and screened to isolate a polymer rich fraction which is then fully segregated via NIR technology in to target polymers prior to fully automated product baling. Recoverable Fibre is optically targeted as well as ferrous and non-ferrous metals. All food waste is transported off site for further biological treatment and the remaining residual waste leaves site for thermal recovery. In 2015 the plant has been successfully upgraded to forty tons per hour and remains fully automated including material baling.

Large-Scale Composting of Biowaste and Bio-Organics from MSW by using the TAIM WESER Composting System
© Wasteconsult International (5/2011)
Since almost two decades TAIM WESER GmbH (former WESER-ENGINEERING GmbH) is designing, building and commissioning composting-plants for treating curbside collected biowaste as well as the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in order to produce high quality compost for agricultural use or compost like output, a compost suitable to be used for e.g. road-greens, parks, re-greening of brown-fields or to fight against desertification in arid areas.

Utilization of distillery effluents and agriculture waste to generate energy and usable microalgae biomass in a biogas-microalgae sequence
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
The objective of the proposed project is the pilot plant scale experimental verification of technical feasibility of complex utilization of organic waste, especially distillery effluents, in a sequence of technological steps that results in the conversion of the waste into biogas (for the production of electric power and heat in co-generation unit) and microalgae biomass (Chlorella vg).

Micronutrients uptake by corn from Sewage sludge treated soils
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
In arid and some semiarid regions of Iran due to the shortage of organic matter,in soil, in one hand, and industrial production of organic fertilizers, on the other hand, the tendency toward the usage of sewage sludge (biosolid) has increased. Biosoild is rich in macro and micronutrients its application to the agricultural soils can promote growth and productivity of crops. One aspect of biosoild application as an organic fertilizer on agricultural farms is environmental pollution concerns such as heavy metals uptake by plans. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of biosolid applications (levels 0, 25, 50 Mg ha-1) to soils under corn plant.

Fate and effect of herbicides on co-composting process of green waste and sewage sludge
© Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (6/2009)
The fate and effect of herbicides such as linuron and metribuzin during sewage sludge and green waste co-composting were addressed in this work. A mixture of sludge and green waste was prepared at a ratio of 1:5 v/v. The mixture was split in four equal parts and the two herbicides were added, using a pressure sprayer, as sole or mixed pollutant in each of the three mixtures.

Organic waste management in the EC
© Universität Stuttgart - ISWA (11/2008)
It is obligatory for all member states to adopt the guidelines of the EU in their national law. Of special importance are the ordinances for landfilling (1999/31/CE) and incineration (2000/76/CE). Great discrepancies exist with both the stipulation of the limit values and the realisation of a modern waste management.

Stabilisation and sanitisation of wastewater biosolids during composting
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (10/2008)
This work aimed at gaining an insight on the development of antibiotic resistance in biosolids microbial population, as this may also pose risks to public health and soil ecosystems.

Fecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria in USA market ready green composts and relationship to management parameters
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (10/2008)
Composting has emerged recently as a strategy for recycling waste organic matter as an alternative to landfilling andincineration. Originally regarded as a fertility management tool for organic farming (Mukherjee et al. 2004) it was adapted by developed nations in the 1950’s to tackle municipal solid waste (MSW) with poor results (Hickman, 2001). Dramatic growth in composting has come about recently in Europe and N. America as a means to attain legislated recycling and landfill reduction mandates (USEPA 1992). Bulky components of waste such as woody yard trimmings, grass clippings and food scraps, which may occupy up to 45% of the waste stream, are obvious targets. At least 22 states in America have imposed restrictions or bans on accumulation of yard trimmings in landfills. Compost recycling has grown with the expectation of absence of significant risk to society (Farrel 1992, USEPA 1992). Studies in the 1960’s indicated thermal inactivation of numerous pathogens from the sustained biological heating of composts (Wiley 1969). The USEPA sponsored studies on pathogen reduction in sewage sludge composting, and subsequently drafted the findings into regulation as the EPA-503 rule (Farrel, 1992). Since then, this 503 Rule has been widely applied to all types of recycled organic matter (ROM).

© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Cyprus acceded to the European Union in 2002 and since then is required to implement the environmental legislation enforced in the Union, to bring the country in line with other Member States. Waste management is a particularly problematic area, which has received relatively little attention in the past in Cyprus, and the treatment and management of livestock and industrial wastes are a specific, major problem in the country.

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