Plastics Recycling and Energy Recovery Activities in Poland – Current Status and Development Prospects –
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
The waste disposal system in Poland is one of the least advanced in Europe. Despite great efforts over the last 20 years municipal waste landfilling has only reduced from 95 percent in 1991 to 73 percent in 2010. This still means that millions of tonnes of post-consumer waste continue to be landfilled.

Fully Automated Sorting Plant for Municipal Solid Waste in Oslo with Recovery of Metals, Plastics, Paper and Refuse Derived Fuel
© TK Verlag - Fachverlag für Kreislaufwirtschaft (9/2016)
In order to treat household waste Romerike Avfallsforedling (ROAF) located in Skedsmorkorset north of Oslo, Norway required the installation of a mechanical Treatment facility to process 40,000 tpa. Together with a Norwegian based technical consultancy Mepex and German based technical consultancy EUG the project was tendered and the plant build against a technical specification. In 2013 the project was awarded to Stadler Anlagenbau and since April 2014 the plant is in operation with an hourly throughput of thirty tons. The input waste contains specific green coloured bags containing food waste which is collected together with the residual waste from the households. The process recovers successfully the green food bags before the remaining waste is mechanically pre-treated and screened to isolate a polymer rich fraction which is then fully segregated via NIR technology in to target polymers prior to fully automated product baling. Recoverable Fibre is optically targeted as well as ferrous and non-ferrous metals. All food waste is transported off site for further biological treatment and the remaining residual waste leaves site for thermal recovery. In 2015 the plant has been successfully upgraded to forty tons per hour and remains fully automated including material baling.

municipal handbook on door to door separate waste collection in catalonia (spain)
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (10/2008)
The Catalan Association of municipalities for door to door selective waste collection published the Municipal handbook on door to door separate waste collection in Catalonia. This initiative has received the support of several regional administrations.

© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Waste Management in England takes a two-tier approach. Waste Collection Authorities (WCAs) are responsible for providing day-to-day collections of household wastes. At agreed locations, called Transfer Stations, Waste Disposal Authorities (WDAs) take control of the wastes and arrange for disposal. Some urban areas of England are governed by Unitary Authorities, which are responsible for both the collection and disposal of the waste generated within their boundaries. This two-tier system has resulted in there being two standard options provided by authorities for disposing of household bulky waste, which includes furniture, electrical appliances and other large and heavy items not accepted on regular refuse or recycling collections (e.g. carpets, bicycles, household construction wastes). (Session A10: Waste recycling (II))

© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
From FY1983 to FY1990, the amount of municipal waste generated in Japan increased rapidly. As a result, The waste Management Law was revised in 1991 to add measures for both waste reduction and to reinforce the responsibility of stakeholders. Like municipal waste, the amount of industrial waste generated increased rapidly until FY1990. Since then, it has seen no major fluctuations, hovering around the 400 million ton level per year. Having experienced wasterelated crises, Japan has reinforced its policy measures toward tacking waste issues. As it proceeds in this direction, Japan has developed a policy to strengthen its “3R” (recycle, reduce and reuse) framework over the past dozen years. (Session A9: Waste recycling (I))



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