bifa-Text No. 62: Ecoefficiency analysis of photovoltaic modules / english version
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (2/2014)
The study by the bifa environmental institute describes a future-orientated view of the ecological and economic effects of photovoltaic (PV) systems along their whole life cycle.

Shaping the Electricity Market of the Future
© SRU - Sachverständigenrat fĂĽr Umweltfragen (11/2013)
Climate-neutral electricity generation is both necessary and possible. It is necessary because the Federal Republic of Germany, together with the other Member States of the European Union, has committed itself to the target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 per cent from 1990 levels by 2050. This is the industrialised countries’ minimum contribution to the internationally agreed target of preventing global average temperature from rising more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels. This target can only be achieved by moving to a power system essentially based on renewable sources, as substantial emission reductions are easier and less expensive to implement in the electricity sector than in other sectors.

“What’s in a Smell?”
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (8/2013)
This article examines the odorisation process of biomethane before it is injected into the natural gas grid in the Netherlands. Odorisation of biomethane is accompanied with risks and inadequate odorisation might have substantial legal and physical consequences. This article attempts to address one of the technical risks related to the odorisation of biomethane, which is the odor masking due to a trace component in the biomethane. Furthermore, this article investigates the liability and responsibility with regards to this odor masking in the light of the European Union’s Product Safety Directive. It can be concluded that it remains unclear who can be held responsible if the biogas producer is not the one who injects the biomethane into the gas grid (biomethane injector). Moreover, the European product liability regime does not cover all aspects in case damages occur due to inadequately odorised biomethane.

Social Acceptance and the Development of the North Sea Offshore Grid
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (8/2013)
This article considers social acceptance and the development of marine renewable energy and grid infrastructure for a sustainable, secure, and competitive European energy future. The North Seas Countries Offshore Grid Initiative and the European Union’s Regulation on Guidelines for Trans-European Energy Infrastructure are considered in this respect. Declarations and recent marine initiatives of the Renewables- Grid-Initiative are examined to determine how they might support the development of greater social acceptance for marine grid infrastructure for the northern seas of Europe. Finally, recommendations are made for a regulatory framework to support the development of social acceptance for offshore grid infrastructure in these seas.

The German Offshore Transmission Grid – (Finally) A Success Story?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2013)
As a result of the extensive promotion of offshore wind energy in Germany since 2006 and, in particular, since the so-called “Energiewende” by the German government in 2011, there is an increased demand to expand the German offshore transmission grid. However, the applicable statutory framework proved to be insufficient to provide the needed legal and regulatory guidance for offshore grid investments which have exceeded € 5 billion since 2010 and are expected to increase in the upcoming years. Furthermore, the increasing demand for offshore components and technology has exhausted the available market capacities. Because of these challenges, both de facto and de jure, and after long lasting discussions among the concerned parties, the German legislator implemented on 28 December 2012 a new statutory framework containing in particular a structural approach for the offshore grid development as well as a new liability regime for cases of delayed construction or disruption of offshore grid connection lines. The new statutory framework is aimed at providing potential investors and grid operators with the due level of legal certainty required for a further and effective expansion of offshore wind energy in Germany. In this regard, it should provide a sound basis for facilitating the Energiewende, but it is now up to all stakeholders involved to find a workable solution.

The Energiewende in Germany: Background, Developments and Future Challenges
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2013)
This article explores the background to the Energiewende in Germany and recent developments. Specifically, it examines the ongoing politics of this commitment to phase-out nuclear power, reduce fossil fuel use and ensure continued economic growth. Distinctions between the German Energiewende and energy transitions in other countries are drawn, the actions undertaken and the forms of governance and politics shaping them outlined. While Germany is a leader in renewable energy, and the broad societal consensus against nuclear power is uniquely German, political and societal conflicts of a more general nature are emerging. Other countries follow closely developments occuring in Germany and may learn from the German experience. The key objective of this article is thus to draw attention to the politics of the Energiewende in Germany and the key debates and difficult decisions emerging.

Results of a DVGW Biogas Monitoring Program
© DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH (8/2010)
Biomass and especially biogas is deemed to be part of the desired substitution of fossil energy. The majority of biogas systems in Germany have an electric power output below 500 kW (Figure 1). They are generally installed in rural areas where the efficient use of the coproduced heat is hardly possible and approximately 50 % of the energy content of the biogas is dissipated. Figure 1 shows explicitly the push effect of the German act on granting priority to renewable energy sources (EEG) in 2004 [1]. The purpose described in article 1 of this act is to protect the climate by facilitating the use of renewable energies. This is achieved by paying a guaranteed price for the produced electric energy which includes a bonus compared to conventionally produced electrical energy. From the beginning of 2009 new payment provisions have been applied [2].

A Success Story – The German Renewable Energy Act Turns Ten
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (7/2010)
In its first ten years, the German Renewable Energy Act (the Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz or EEG) has triggered an unprecedented growth in renewable energy in the electricity sector. This feed-in law complements the emissions trading scheme, and is making a significant contribution towards achieving Germany’s target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 40 % from 1990 levels by 2020.

bifa-Text Nr. 42: CDM - Clean Development Mechanism in the waste management sector
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (10/2009)
An analysis of potentials and barriers within the present methodological framework

Renewable energy production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste through two-phase anaerobic digestion
© Wasteconsult International (6/2009)
In this study, biochemical methane production (BMP) experiments were performed in order to investigate whether phase separation enhanced the efficiency of methanogenic activity or not. The performances were compared in terms of tCOD and VS reductions, and cumulative gas production. The experimental results indicated that 10% and 23% increases in tCOD and VS removals were achieved, respectively, by phase separation. The acetic and propionic acids were not detected in the reactors which was an indication of successful methanization. Keywords: Anaerobic, biogas, organic fraction of municipal solid waste, phase separation 1 Introduction 2 Materials and Methods 2.1 Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste and Anaerobic Seed Culture 2.2 Experimental Set-up 2.3 Analytical Methods 3 Results and Discussions 4 Conclusions

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